The propositio informs your audience of your stance, and the partitio lays out your argument. In other words, the propositio tells your audience what you think about a topic, and the partitio briefly explains why you think that way and how you will prove your point. Because this section helps to set up the rest of your argument, you should place it near the beginning of your paper.
Keep in mind, however, that you should not give away all of your information or evidence in your partitio. This section should be fairly short: perhaps sentences at most for most academic essays. Just as a filmgoer must see an entire film to gain an understanding of its significance or quality, so too must your audience read the rest of your argument to truly understand its depth and scope.
Some writing contexts call for an audience of one. Some require consideration of multiple audiences, in which case you must find ways to craft an argument which appeals to each member of your audience. For example, if your audience included a school board as well as parents andteachers, your propositio might look something like this:. Not only would the marriage of English studies and technology extend pedagogical opportunities, it would also create an ease of instruction for teachers, engage students in creative learning environments, and familiarize students with the creation and sharing technologies that they will be expected to use at their future colleges and careers.
Note how the above paragraph considers the concerns and motivations of all three audience members, takes a stance, and provides support for the stance in a way that allows for the rest of the argument to grow from its ideas. Keep in mind that whatever you promise in your propositio and partitio in this case the new teaching practices, literacy statistics, and professional opinion must appear in the body of your argument.
These two represent different types of proofs that you will need to consider when crafting your argument. The confirmatio and refutatio work in opposite ways, but are both very effective in strengthening your claims. Confirmatio is a way to confirm your claims and is considered a positive proof; refutatio is a way to acknowledge and refute a counterclaim and is considered a negative proof.
For your argument on technology in the English classroom, you might include the following:. The refutatio provides negative proofs. This is an opportunity for you to acknowledge that other opinions exist and have merit, while also showing why those claims do not warrant rejecting your argument. If you feel strange including information that seems to undermine or weaken your own claims, ask yourself this: have you ever been in a debate with someone who entirely disregarded every point you tried to make without considering the credibility of what you said?
Did this make their argument less convincing? After acknowledging an opposing viewpoint, you have two options. In your concession of the argument, you acknowledge the merit of the opposing argument, but you should still try to flip the evidence in a positive way. Note how we acknowledged the opposing argument, but immediately pointed out its flaws using straightforward logic and a counterexample.
In so doing, we effectively strengthen our argument and move forward with our proposal.
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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Writing a 3-point Thesis Statement 1. Thesis Statements 2. Thesis statement: o Spring is definitely the best time of year. Writing prompt: o Should students have to go to school year round? Thesis Statement: o Students absolutely should not have to go to school all year long.
What did you notice? Hint: These three reasons will become the topics of your three body paragraphs.
How to Write a Compare and Contrast Thesis Statement
Your thesis statement now gives a basic outline of your paper. Sometimes you come up with a counter-argument that you think is true and that you think responds to your actual argument, not some other point. Then you are faced with a choice: Do you abandon your thesis and adopt the counter-argument as your position? The new version might look like this:. So, studying racism might just make them want to be racist out of sheer contrariness.
Then, you refine your original thesis to say something like this:. This also takes away some of the reasons a reader might have to disagree with you. Some counter-arguments are better than others. You want to use ones that are actually somewhat persuasive. Two things to look for are reasonableness and popularity. On the other hand, you may be quite sure of your position, which makes it harder to see other views as reasonable. They all look flawed to you because you can point out their errors and show why your view is better.
In that case, look for ones that are popular, even if they are flawed.
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So you want to speak their language. Pick the arguments that you, or a lot of other people, feel are reasonable. The short answer is a counter-argument can go anywhere except the conclusion. This is because there has to be a rebuttal paragraph after the counter-argument, so if the counter-argument is in the conclusion, something has been left out. In practice there are exceptions , the rebuttal is usually not the concluding paragraph, which means that generally the counter-argument is anywhere but the last two paragraphs.
Topic Sentence and Thesis Statement: The Keystones of Organized Writing
Counter-arguments can be very effective in introductions, especially if you are arguing against a popularly held view. This is probably the most common position. Generally, unless there is some compelling reason specific to the particular argument being made, it does not make sense to put the counter-argument in the middle of the case for the thesis. In other words, you would not typically present two points in support of the thesis, then the counter-argument and rebuttal, and then more points in support of the thesis.
Here are two outlines showing the most common placement of the counter-argument. The first is probably the most common. Since the purpose of the whole paper, including the counter-argument, is to support the thesis, these signals are crucial. Without them the paper appears incoherent and contradictory. In his majisterial work on representation in western literature, a foundational text in the discipline, Auerbach argues that the mixture of styles is an essential ingredient of all modern realism, a view that has found wide acceptance in the half-century since its publication.
Typical introductory strategies include the following:.